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Course Description

Credit Units: 3
Lecturers: Dr. Emmanuel Onyekwelu, Email Id: euonyekwelu@hotmail.com, College of Health Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences

Course description:
This course deals with basic thematic aspects of Human topographical and Applied Anatomy, Embryology and Histology  their employ in  the appreciation and evaluation of common  Pathological Paediatric,Medical,Surgical ,Gynaecological and obstetrics conditions in a unified and synoptic framework to direct apposite diagnostic, prophylactic  and therapeutic interventions.

Learning Outcomes/ Objectives

At the end of the course, the student will be able to;

Appreciate and explore the basic topographical anatomical concepts to localise the common symptomatologies of patients to expedite initial diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to facilitate prompt referral where appropriate.

Apply the knowledge of topographical Anatomy to facilitate the acquisition of skills 

for basic clinical procedures in a routine, exigent, urgent and emergent clinical setting. 

Employ the knowledge of developmental anatomy or embryology to appreciate and comprehend the basic processes of human development from conception through the embryonic and fetal periods until birth, and in this way appreciate when and why things go wrong in the common congenital malformations.

Comprehend and extrapolate the knowledge of Histology or functional microscopic Anatomy to appreciate how nature very closely matches structure to function and how these consistencies could be modified or lost in some physiological or pathological conditions.

Course Content

Human Embryology (Essense)

The Bilaminar Germ Disc Layer. 

The Trilaminar Germ Disc Layer (Essence)

The Trilaminar Germ Disc Layer (Development)

The Embryonic Period (Derivatives of The Ectodermal Germ Layer).

The Embryonic Period (Derivatives of the Mesodermal Layer).

Derivatives of the Endodermal Germ Layer.

Derivatives of the Endodermal Germ Layer. (During further development the endodermal germ layer gives rise to the:

The Embryonic Period from The (Third to The Eight Week)

The Embryological Aspects of the Skeletal System.

The Embryological Aspects of the Skeletal System (The Skull)

The development of the diaphragm. The elements contributing to the diaphragm include:

The development of the diaphragm. 

The Embryology and The Histological Structure OF The Trachea.

The embryological development of the heart (Essense and Process)

The embryological development of the heart (Essense and Process)

The fetal circulation (Essense and Transition at Birth) 

The fetal circulation (Essense and Transition at Birth) and Applied Anatomy.

Development of the oesophagus.

The development of the gastro-intestinal system.

The gastrointestinal adnexae, liver, gall-bladder and its ducts, pancreas and spleen.

Development of The Pancreas

The embryology and congenital abnormalities of the kidney and ureter 

Embryology of the Fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina.

Characterize and describe the structural components of the 

The Bilaminar germ disc layer: 

The Trilaminar germ disc layer.

Categorize and describe the germ layer origin of all the cells, tissues, and organs systems of the body. And annotate on their basic structural and functional units.

The embryological basis for the formation of an anomalous congenital Sacrococcygeal Teratoma and other Teratomas.

With suitable examples characterize a Teratoma and what are the possible anatomical and histological structures that could be seen in a Teratoma during operative interventions.

 With the aid of a diagrammatical representation itemise and discuss the temporal sequence of the Functional microscopic, topographical developmental and applied developmental anatomical events that take place during the formation of the cardiac system.and their common developmental anatomical defects.

Itemise and characterize the components of Tetralogy of Fallot and their embryological basis.

Itemise and discuss the temporal sequence of events that take place during the formation of the ©-the arterial system (d) – the venous system (e) – the lymphatic system and their common developmental anatomical defects. (f)-Characterize and describe the embryonic haemoglobins.

 With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and developmental anatomy of the Phrenic and the defects associated with its development.

Define and Characterize the Foramen of Bochdalek defect and the Foramen of Morgagni defect.

Define and characterize the topographical anatomical and applied anatomical defects in the Sliding Hiatus hernia and the rolling or paraoesophageal hiatus hernias.

With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and developmental anatomy of the lungs.

Characterize and define the structural and the functional microscopic anatomical component and the role of pulmonary surfactant.

What are the structural, topographical and functional microscopic defects associated with anomalous development of the Lungs?

 With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and developmental anatomy of the trachea. 

Discuss the typology of the anomalous developmental defects of the trachea.

With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and developmental anatomy of the components of gastrointestinal system and adnexae (Pancrease, Liver, gallbladder and the spleen) and their possible associated congenital abnormalities.

Define and characterize the Meckels Diverticulum.

Describe the embryological basis for an Omphalocele, a Congenital Volvolus, Left sided ascending colon, ano-rectal anomalies, Hirschsprung’s disease (Aganglionic megacolon) etc.

 With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and developmental anatomy of the renal systems.

Itemise and annotate on the embryologic basis for congenital polycystic kidneys, Ectopia vesicae, ectopic and bifid ureters, pelvic kidney, horseshoe kidneys, Marion’s disease, Potters syndrome etc.

 With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the functional microscopic and developmental anatomy of the male genital systems and the defects associated with it.

Discuss the embryological basis for: cryptochordism and malpositioning of the male testes. Epispadias, Hypospadias etc.

With notable examples characterize the male gonadal aneuploidies.

With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and topographical developmental and applied developmental anatomy of the female genital systems and their associated defects.

With notable examples characterize the female gonadal aneuploidies.

Comprehend the hormonal and genetic defects in the ambiguous genitalia of male and female infants.

The Thoracic Cage (Topographical and Applied Anatomy.

Coarctation of the aorta (Essense, Typology and Features)

The Thoracic Cage (Topographical Anatomy and Clinical features)

The intercostal spaces (Topographical and Applied Anatomy)

The thoracic cage Topographical and Applied Clinical Anatomy. 

The Diaphragm (The Phrenic) Topographical Anatomy and Applied Anatomy.

The development of the diaphragm. The elements contributing to the diaphragm include.

The Diaphragm (The Phrenic) Topographical Anatomy and Applied Anatomy.

The Diaphragm (The Phrenic) Topographical Anatomy and Applied Anatomy and (its movements during respiration)

The pleurae (Applied and Topographical Anatomy)

The trachea (Topographical and Applied Anatomy)

The bronchi (Topographical and Applied Anatomy)

The lungs (Topographical and Applied Anatomy)

The bronchopulmonary segments of the lungs (Topography and Applied Anatomy)

The mediastinum (Topographical and Applied Anatomy)

The pericardium (Topographical and Applied Anatomy)

The heart (Topographical and Applied Anatomy)

The heart (Topographical and Applied Anatomy) Chambers of the heart

The heart (Topographical and Applied Anatomy) Chambers of the heart Right ventricle.

The heart (Topographical and Applied Anatomy) Chambers of the heart .The Left atrium.

The heart (Topographical and Applied Anatomy) Chambers of the heart. (Left ventricle).

The heart (Topographical and Applied Anatomy) The conducting system of the heart.

The heart (Topographical and Applied Anatomy) the blood supply to the heart.

The heart (Topographical and Applied Anatomy) the venous drainage of the heart.

The heart (Topographical and Applied Anatomy) Nerve supply

The thoracic duct and Cisterna chyli (Topographic and Applied Anatomy)

The thoracic sympathetic trunk (Topographical and Applied Anatomy)

The thoracic sympathetic trunk (Topographical and Applied Anatomy)-Branches.

Topographical and Applied Anatomy of The Thorax (The appreciation of a chest radiograph) The following features should be examined in every radiograph of the chest.

The topographical anatomy of the abdomen.

The topographical anatomy of the abdomen.(Abdominal Incisions)

The pudendal nerve runs through the Alcock’s canal (Pudendal Canal), a duplicature of the fascia of the: Internal obturator muscle.

The Muscles and Bones of The Upper and Lower Limbs and Important Anatomical Spaces.

Outline the osteological and myological components of the human skeletal system and depict their significant components with their nervous impulsation and vascular supply.

With notable examples characterize the concepts of anatomical and surgical fractures.

Define the topographical and applied anatomy of the following anatomical regions.

The triangle of auscultation. 

The Brachial plexus.

The axillary region and the mammary gland.

The Cubital Fossa. 

The Space of Parona.

The Carpal Tunnel.

The hand, pulp and web spaces of the hand.

The Scapular arterial anastomoses, the arterial supply and the venous and lymphatic drainages of the upper limbs.

The Scapular Rotator Cuff Muscles. 

The muscles of the flexor and extensor compartments of the arm and forearm.

The Lumbricals and Interosseous muscles of the hand

The arterial arches of the hand 

The Femoral Triangle. 

The Inguinal Triangle of Hasselbach.

The Femoral Canal. 

The Subsartorial Adductor Canal of Hunter. 

The Inferior Lumbar Triangle of Petit.

The Superior Lumbar Triangle.

The Popliteal Fossa. 

The Quadriceps Femoris group of muscles. 

The Hamstrings Group of Muscles.®-

The Lumbar Plexus. 

The sacral plexus. 

The anterior and posterior groups of the muscles of the lower limb.

The Arterial blood supply and the venous and lymphatic drainages of the Lower limbs and the feet. (v)-The Lumbricals and Interosseous muscles of the feet. (l)-The arterial arches of the feet.

Head and Neck Anatomy:

The General Topography of The Neck.

The Deep Cervical Fascia (Four Parts)

Investing Fascia, Prevertebral fascia, Pretracheal fascia and the Carotid Sheath.

Tissue Spaces of The Neck.

Prevertebral space, Retropharyngeal Space, Parapharyngeal space (d)-Submandibular Space.

Triangles of The Neck (Boundaries, Muscles and Contents)

The Posterior Triangle of the Neck, The Occipital Triangle of the Neck ,The Subclavian Triangle of the Neck.

The Anterior Triangle of The Neck. (Boundaries, Muscles and Contents)

Submental Triangle (The Digastric Triangle The Carotid Triangle, The muscular triangle 

The contents of the Posterior Triangle and The Sternocleidomastoid muscles, Lymphnodes of the Posterior Triangle, Accessory Nerve, The Cervical Plexus 

The inferior belly of the omohyoid, The transverse cervical vessels and the supraclavicular vessels, The third part of the subclavian artery, The external jugular vein 

Contents of The Posterior Triangle

The external jugular vein 

The Levator Scapulae 

The transverse cervical artery 

The dorsal scapular nerve 

Scalenus posterior. 

Scalenus medius 

Scalenus anterior .

The Cervical Plexus:

The cervical plexus is a content of the posterior triangle.

Dermatomes of the Neck.

 The Anterior Triangle of The Neck

Suprahyoid Muscles such as:

Digastric Muscle, Stylohyoid, Mylohyoid and Geniohyoid.

THE INFRAHYOID MUSCLES:

Sternohyoid, Omohyoid, Thyrohyoid and Sternothyroid .

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of The Thyroid Gland. 

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of The ParaThyroid Gland.

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of The Trachea. 

The Topographical, Functional Microscopic, developmental and Applied Anatomy of The Thyroid Gland.

The Topographical, Functional Microscopic, developmental and Applied Anatomy of  the 

The Pitutary Gland. The Topographical, Functional Microscopic, developmental and Applied Anatomy of The Pharynx.

The Topographical, Functional Microscopic, developmental and Applied Anatomy of The Larynx.

The Topographical, Functional Microscopic, developmental and Applied Anatomy of The Gastrointestinal System and Adnexae.

The (The Cervical) Oesophagus. 

The Carotid Sheath.

The Ansa Cervicalis.

The Suprahyoid Region.

The Platysma.

The Anterior Jugular Veins.

The Submental and submandibular lymphnodes.

The submandibular Fossa.

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of The submandibular Gland.

The Great Vessels of The Neck.

The External Carotid Artery.

The superior Thyroid Artery.

The Lingual Artery.

The Facial Artery.

The submental Artery.

The Occipital Artery.

The Posterior Auricular Artery.

The Ascending Pharyngeal Artery.

The Internal Carotid Artery.

The Internal Jugular veins.

The Prevertebral Region.

The Prevertebral Muscles of The Neck

Rectus Capitis Anterior.

Rectus Capitis Lateralis.

Longus Capitis.

Longus Colli.

THE CERVICAL SYMPATHETIC TRUNK.

The Cervical Part of the sympathetic trunk.

The Superior Cervical Ganglion.

The Middle Cervical Ganglion.

(The Inferior Cervical Ganglion.

The Stellate Ganglion or The Cervico-Thoracic Ganglion.

The Somatic, Visceral and Vascular Branches of the Cervical Sympathetic Trunk.

THE ROOT OF THE NECK.

The Topographical, the anterior, medial, posterior and lateral relations and Applied Anatomy (subclavian vein catheterization) of The Scalenus Anterior Muscles.

The Scalenus Medius Muscles.

The Scalenus Posterior Muscles.

THE FACE.

The Skin of The Face.

The Muscles of the Face (mainly sphincteric muscles from the pannicullus carnosus without a deep fascia.)

The Muscles of the Eyelids.

The orbicularis oculi (palpebral part)

The orbicularis oculi (orbital part)

Levator palpebrae superioris.

The occipito-frontalis muscles.

Muscles of The Nostrils

The Sphincter Muscles of the nostril.
Compressor Naris

Dilator Naris.

Muscles of the Lips and Cheeks.

Orbicularis Oris.

The Buccinator.

The Dilator Muscles of the Lips

The Modiolus Muscle.

Elevator Muscle fibres of the Lips.

Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi.

Levator Labii superioris.

Levator anguli oris.

Zygomaticus Minor.

Risorius muscle.

Depressor labii inferioris.

Nerve supply of the face muscles.

The Posterior auricular branch of the Facial nerve (Supplies the occipital belly of occipito-frontalis)

A muscular branch (supplies the posterior belly of digastric and stylohyoid muscle.

The pes anserinus of the Facial nerve (A plexiform arrangement)

The facial branches of the facial nerve.

Temporalis——————————–(The)

Zygomatic branches. ——————(Zebras)

Buccal Branches————————(Brings)

Mandibular Branch (Marginal) ——–(More)

Cervical Branch—————————(Crossings)

The Sensory Nerve Supply of The Face.

The Trigeminal Nerve. (Ophthalmic, Maxillary and Mandibular Branches)

The Ophthalmic Nerve. (Has five cutaneous branches)

The Lacrimal nerve.

The supraorbital nerve.

The infratrochlear nerve.

The external nasal nerve.

The  Maxillary Nerve.(Has three cutaneous branches)

Infraorbital nerve.

Zygomaticofacial nerve.

Zygomaticotemporal nerve.

The Mandibular Nerve (Has three cutaneous branches)

The auriculotemporal nerve.

The buccal nerve.

The Mental Nerve.

BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE FACE:

Facial Artery.

Superior and Inferior Labial Artery.

Superficial Temporal Artery.

Transverse Facial Artery.

The supraorbital and supratrochlear branches of the ophthalmic artery.

The Venous Return From The face. (Usually entirely superficial)

The supra-orbital and supratrochlear veins 

The angular veins and 

The facial vein on accompanying the facial artery.

(Formerly the part above the retromandibular union was called anterior facial vein and the part below it the common facial vein.)

Tributaries of the superficial temporal vein.

The maxillary veins 

The pterygoid venous plexus 

The retromandibular vein 

 Anterior and posterior retromandibular veins.

The Anterior retromandibular vein 

 The facial vein 

The internal jugular vein.

The posterior retromandibular vein 

 The posterior auricular vein 

 The external jugular vein, 

 The subclavian vein.

Deep Venous Anastomoses of The Face:

The Facial vein 

 The Cavernous Sinus.

The ophthalmic veins .

The Deep Facial Vein 

The angular veins 

 The deep facial veins .

The Lymphatic Drainage of The Face.(Mainly through three superficial Groups of Lymphnodes)

The Submental Nodes.

The Submandibular Nodes.

The Preauricular Group of Nodes.

The Deep Cervical Group of Lymphnodes is where they eventually drain to.

The Scalp:

S—————————-Skin.

C—————————-Connective Tissue.

A—————————–Aponeurosis (Gela Aponeurotica)

L—————————–Loose connective Tissue.

P—————————–Periosteum.

The Forehead.

The Anatomy of The OccipitoFrontalis Muscle. 

The Arteries of The scalp. 

The occipital artery, 

The posterior auricular artery, 

The superficial temporal artery.

The external carotid artery, 

The supraorbital and supratrochlear

The ophthalmic.

The Veins of The scalp.

The  diploic veins from frontal, parietaI and occipital bones.

The supraorbital vein and supratrochlear vein 

 The angular veins 

 The facial vein.

The superficial temporal veins 

The retromanduibular vein

And the Occipital veins 

 The Venous plexus around the Semispinalis Capitis muscle 

The posterior auricular vein 

The mastoid emissary vein from the sigmoid sinus.

The Lymphatics of The Scalp.

Nerve Supply of The Scalp.

The greater occipital and third occipital nerves (posterior rami of C2 and C3 respectively)  

The lesser occipital nerve (anterior ramus of C2) 

The auriculotemporal nerve and The Zygomaticotemporal nerve 

The supratrochlear nerve and supraorbital nerve innervates the forehead and front of the scalp respectively.

The Temporal Fossa and The Zygomatic Arch.

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of The Temporal Fossa.

The Zygomatic Arch 

The Temporalis Fascia.

The Temporalis Muscle.

The parotid Region

The Masseter Muscle.

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of The  Parotid Gland.

The Infratemporal Region.

The topographical and Applied Anatomy of The Infratemporal Fossa.

The Boundaries of The Infratemporal Fossa.

The Contents of The Infratemporal Fossa.

The Medial Pterygoid Muscle.

The Lateral Pterygoid Muscle.

The insertion of the Temporalis Muscle into the Coronoid Process.

The Maxillary Artery and its Branches.

The Pterygoid Venous Plexus which drains into the Maxillary veins.

The Mandibular Nerve and its Branches.

The Otic ganglion.

Chorda Tympani.

Posterior Superior Alveolar Branches of the Maxillary Nerve.

The Sphenomandibular ligament.

The Mylohyoid nerve.

The Mylohyoid Artery.

The Mandibular Nerve(Branches):

The Meningeal Branch (or Nervus Spinosus).

The Nerve to The Medial Pterygoid Muscle.

The Mandibular Nerve (Branches from The Anterior Division):

The Deep Temporal Branches.

The Masseteric Nerve.

The Nerve to The Lateral Pterygoid Muscle.

The Buccal Nerve.

The Mandibular Nerve (Branches from The Posterior Division):

The Auriculotemporal Nerve.

The inferior alveolar nerve.

The Lingual Nerve.

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of the Chorda tympani.

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of the Otic Ganglion.

The Carotid Sheath and The Cranial Nerves:

The Glossopharyngeal Nerve(Branches).

The Inferior and Superior Ganglion of the Glossopharngeal Nerve.

The Glossopharyngeal Nerve (Its Six Branches).

The tympanic branch (Jacobson’s Nerve)

The motor branch of Stylopharyngeus Muscle.

Carotid Sinus Nerve.

Pharyngeal branches (one or more pharyngeal branches join the pharyngeal nervous plexus.

The Tonsillar Branch.

The Lingual Branch.

The Central Connexions of the Glossopharyngeal Nerves will be dwelt with latter.

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of the Vagus Nerve.

The Superior and Inferior Ganglion of the Vagus Nerve.

The Vagus Nerve Branches in The Neck.

The Meningeal Branches.

The Auricular Branch.

The Carotid Body Branch.

The Pharyngeal Branch.

The Superior Laryngeal Branch.

The Cervical Cardiac Branches.

The Recurrent Laryngeal Branches.

The Accessory Nerve Branches in The Neck.

The Cranial and Spinal Accessory Nerve roots in The Neck.

The cranial root fibres join the Vagus nerve.

The remaining cervical fibres giving off a branch to the Steinocleidomastoid Muscle.

The Nerve to the Trapezius Muscle.

Efferent proprioceptive fibres from the muscle reach the spinal cord in the ordinary way through the C2 and C3 for the Steinocleidomastoid and through the C3 and C4 for the Trapezium.

The Hypoglossal Nerve.

Ramus from C1.

Non-lingual branches formed by hitch-hiking C1 fibres.

The Small meningeal branch.

The Branch to Ansa Cervicalis .

The Branches to Thyrohyoid and Geniohyoid.

The Hypoglossal Fibres to The Tongue.

The Styloid Apparatus

The Styloid Process.

The Stylohyoid Ligament.

The stylopharyngeus Muscle.

The Styloglossus Muscle.

The Stylomandibular Ligament.

The External Carotid Artery.

THE PTERYGOPALATINE FOSSA.

.Boundaries of The Pterygopalatine Fossa.

Contents The Pterygopalatine Fossa.

The Maxillary Nerves.

The Maxillary Arteries.

The Maxillary Veins.

The Pterygopalatine Ganglion.

Trace The course and Branches  of The maxillary Nerve in The Pterygopalatine Fossa.

The Pterygopalatine Ganglion.

The nerve of the pterygoid Canal (Vidian Nerve)

The Five Nerve branches of the Pterygopalatine ganglion 

The Nasopalatine nerve( formerly the long Sphenopalatine

The Lateral Posterior Superior Nasal Nerves (formerly the short Sphenopalatine) 

The Greater Palatine Nerve 

The Lesser Palatine Nerves 

The Pharyngeal Nerve 

One or two very fine orbital branches 

The five branches of the Maxillary 

Topographical, functional microscopic, developmental Anatomy of the sensory organs:

The Ears

The Orbit and The Eyes

The Nose.

The Paranasal Sinuses.

Typology ,examples and histological Features of Epithelia cells,Cartiage,muscles tissue,bones .blood vessels,nervous tissues,neuroglial,microglias  and an annotated diagrmmatical representation of the basic functional and structural units of all the tissues and organ sysytems of the body etc.,

Topographical, functional microscopic, developmental Anatomy of the Central Nervous System (The Brain and The Spinal Cord)

 

Methods of Instruction: 

Digital photographs, Micrographic and Microscopic Slides of Light Microscopy, Electron Transmission-Microscopy,-Scanning-Transmission-Electron-Microscopy Immunoflouresence Microscopy, 

Phase Contrast Microscopy,Immunohistochemistry,molecular-pathology,mutation-analysis cytogenetics,toxicology,Imaging Techniques such as Digital Camera,X-rays,(Computer Tomographic Scans(CT Scans),Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans (MRIs),Nuclear-Medicine-Techniques ,Spectroscopy,Spectrometry,Electrophoresis,Chromatography  etc.

Lectures

Tutorials

Discussion groups

Guest lectures

Projects (e.g. case studies, poster presentation, seminar presentation)

Reading of articles from relevant scientific journals

Methods of Course Assessment:

Evaluation will be carried out in accordance with the university policy. The lecturer will present a written course outline with specific evaluation criteria at the beginning of the semester.Evaluation will be based on the following:

Criteria Marks

Individual Works/Tasks 10

Class Tests 10

Class Assignments 10

Final Examination 70

TOTAL 100

Pre-requisite courses:

None

Co-requisite course(s):

None

Recommended Reference Materials:

Indexed Anatomy Textbooks, Journals and Web

Please click on the course content tab to have access to all required materials for this course.

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