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Course Description

Credit Units: 2
Lecturers: Dr. Emmanuel Onyekwelu, Email Id: euonyekwelu@hotmail.com, College of Health Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences

Course description:
This course deals with basic thematic aspects of Human topographical and Applied
Embryology and Histology their employ in the appreciation and evaluation of common Pathological ,Paediatric,Medical,Surgical ,Gynaecological and obstetrics
conditions in a unified and synoptic framework to direct apposite diagnostic,
prophylactic and therapeutic interventions.

Learning Outcomes/ Objectives

At the end of the course, the student will be able to; Appreciate and explore the basic topographical developmental and functional microscopic anatomical concepts to localise the common symptomatologies of patients to expedite initial diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to facilitate prompt referral where appropriate.

Apply the knowledge of topographical developmental and functional microscopic
Anatomy to facilitate the acquisition of skills for basic clinical procedures in a
routine, exigent, urgent and emergent clinical setting.

Employ the knowledge of developmental anatomy or embryology to appreciate and
comprehend the basic processes of human development from conception through
the embryonic and fetal periods until birth, and in this way appreciate when and why
things go wrong in the common congenital malformations.

Comprehend and extrapolate the knowledge of Histology or functional microscopic
Anatomy to appreciate how nature very closely matches structure to function and
how these consistencies could be modified or lost in some physiological or
pathological conditions.

Course Content

Human Embryology (Essense)
The Bilaminar Germ Disc Layer.
The Trilaminar Germ Disc Layer (Essence)
The Trilaminar Germ Disc Layer (Development)
The Embryonic Period (Derivatives of The Ectodermal Germ Layer).
The Embryonic Period (Derivatives of the Mesodermal Layer).
Derivatives of the Endodermal Germ Layer.
Derivatives of the Endodermal Germ Layer. (During further development the
endodermal germ layer gives rise to the:
The Embryonic Period from The (Third to The Eight Week)
The Embryological Aspects of the Skeletal System.
The Embryological Aspects of the Skeletal System (The Skull)
The development of the diaphragm. The elements contributing to the diaphragm
include:
The development of the diaphragm.
The Embryology and The Histological Structure OF The Trachea.
The embryological development of the heart (Essense and Process)
The embryological development of the heart (Essense and Process)
The fetal circulation (Essense and Transition at Birth)
The fetal circulation (Essense and Transition at Birth) and Applied Anatomy.
Development of the oesophagus.
The development of the gastro-intestinal system.
The gastrointestinal adnexae, liver, gall-bladder and its ducts, pancreas and spleen.
Development of The Pancreas
The embryology and congenital abnormalities of the kidney and ureter
Embryology of the Fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina.
Characterize and describe the structural components of the
The Bilaminar germ disc layer:
The Trilaminar germ disc layer.

Categorize and describe the germ layer origin of all the cells, tissues, and organs
systems of the body. And annotate on their basic structural and functional units.
The embryological basis for the formation of an anomalous congenital Sacrococcygeal Teratoma and other Teratomas.

With suitable examples characterize a Teratoma and what are the possible
anatomical and histological structures that could be seen in a Teratoma during
operative interventions.

With the aid of a diagrammatical representation itemise and discuss the temporal
sequence of the Functional microscopic, topographical developmental and applied
developmental anatomical events that take place during the formation of the cardiac
system.and their common developmental anatomical defects. Itemise and characterize the components of Tetralogy of Fallot and their
embryological basis.

Itemise and discuss the temporal sequence of events that take place during the
formation of the ©-the arterial system (d) – the venous system (e) – the lymphatic
system and their common developmental anatomical defects. (f)-Characterize and
describe the embryonic haemoglobins.

With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic
and developmental anatomy of the Phrenic and the defects associated with its
development. Define and Characterize the Foramen of Bochdalek defect and the Foramen of Morgagni defect.

Define and characterize the topographical anatomical and applied anatomical
defects in the Sliding Hiatus hernia and the rolling or paraoesophageal hiatus
hernias.

With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic
and developmental anatomy of the lungs. Characterize and define the structural and the functional microscopic anatomical component and the role of pulmonary surfactant.

What are the structural, topographical and functional microscopic defects associated with anomalous development of the Lungs?
With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic
and developmental anatomy of the trachea. Discuss the typology of the anomalous developmental defects of the trachea. With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and developmental anatomy of the components of gastrointestinal system and adnexae (Pancrease, Liver, gallbladder and the spleen) and their possible associated congenital abnormalities.
Define and characterize the Meckels Diverticulum. 

Describe the embryological basis for an Omphalocele, a Congenital Volvolus, Left
sided ascending colon, ano-rectal anomalies, Hirschsprung’s disease (Aganglionic
megacolon) etc. With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and developmental anatomy of the renal systems.
Itemise and annotate on the embryologic basis for congenital polycystic kidneys,
Ectopia vesicae, ectopic and bifid ureters, pelvic kidney, horseshoe kidneys,
Marion’s disease, Potters syndrome etc.

With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the functional microscopic
and developmental anatomy of the male genital systems and the defects associated
with it.

Discuss the embryological basis for: cryptochordism and malpositioning of the male
testes. Epispadias, Hypospadias etc. With notable examples characterize the male gonadal aneuploidies. With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and topographical developmental and applied developmental anatomy of the female genital systems and their associated defects.
With notable examples characterize the female gonadal aneuploidies.

Comprehend the hormonal and genetic defects in the ambiguous genitalia of male
and female infants.
The Topographical, Functional Microscopic, developmental and Applied Anatomy of
The Thyroid Gland.
The Topographical, Functional Microscopic, developmental and Applied Anatomy of
The Pitutary Gland
Topographical, functional microscopic, developmental Anatomy of the sensory
organs:
The Ears
The Eyes
The Tongue
The Nose. The Paranasal Sinuses.
The Larynx
Typology ,examples and histological Features of Epithelia cells,Cartiage,muscles
tissue,bones .blood vessels,nervous tissues,neuroglial,microglias and an annotated
diagrmmatical representation of the basic functional and structural units of all the
tissues and organ sysytems of the body etc.,
Topographical, functional microscopic, developmental Anatomy of the Central
Nervous System (The Brain and The Spinal Cord)

Methods of Instruction: 

Digital photographs, Micrographic and Microscopic Slides of Light Microscopy, Electron Transmission-Microscopy,-Scanning-Transmission-Electron-Microscopy Immunoflouresence Microscopy, 

Phase Contrast Microscopy,Immunohistochemistry,molecular-pathology,mutation-analysis cytogenetics,toxicology,Imaging Techniques such as Digital Camera,X-rays,(Computer Tomographic Scans(CT Scans),Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans (MRIs),Nuclear-Medicine-Techniques ,Spectroscopy,Spectrometry,Electrophoresis,Chromatography  etc.

Lectures

Tutorials

Discussion groups

Guest lectures

Projects (e.g. case studies, poster presentation, seminar presentation)

Reading of articles from relevant scientific journals

Methods of Course Assessment:

Evaluation will be carried out in accordance with the university policy. The lecturer will present a written course outline with specific evaluation criteria at the beginning of the semester.Evaluation will be based on the following:

Criteria Marks

Individual Works/Tasks 10

Class Tests 10

Class Assignments 10

Final Examination 70

TOTAL 100

Pre-requisite courses:

None

Co-requisite course(s):

None

Recommended Reference Materials:

Indexed Anatomy Textbooks, Journals and Web

Please click on the course content tab to have access to all required materials for this course.

Legacy University COVID-19 Response

We wish you and your loved ones health and peace during these uncharted times. Our University remains open with the implementation of online classes for the 2020 academic year via our Legacy University Open eSchool (https://legacyuniversitygm.org/elearning)

For general question please email us at: info@legecyuniversitygm.org, call (+220) 507-3964 or visit the university website - https://legacyuniversitygm.org