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Course Description

Credit Units: 2
Lecturers: Dr. Emmanuel Onyekwelu, Email Id: euonyekwelu@hotmail.com, College of Health Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences

Course description:
This course deals with basic thematic aspects of Human topographical and Applied Anatomy, Embryology and Histology  their employ in  the appreciation and evaluation of common  Pathological Paediatric,Medical,Surgical ,Gynaecological ,obstetrics, Midwifery and Allied Health conditions in a unified and synoptic framework to direct apposite diagnostic, prophylactic  and therapeutic interventions.

Learning Outcomes/ Objectives

At the end of the course, the student will be able to;

Appreciate and explore the basic topographical anatomical concepts to localise the common symptomatologies of patients to expedite initial diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to facilitate prompt referral where appropriate.

Apply the knowledge of topographical Anatomy to facilitate the acquisition of skills 

for basic clinical procedures in a routine, exigent, urgent and emergent clinical setting. 

Employ the knowledge of developmental anatomy or embryology to appreciate and comprehend the basic processes of human development from conception through the embryonic and fetal periods until birth, and in this way appreciate when and why things go wrong in the common congenital malformations.

Comprehend and extrapolate the knowledge of Histology or functional microscopic Anatomy to appreciate how nature very closely matches structure to function and how these consistencies could be modified or lost in some physiological or pathological conditions.

Course Content

Head and Neck Anatomy:

The General Topography of The Neck.

The Deep Cervical Fascia (Four Parts)

Investing Fascia, Prevertebral fascia, Pretracheal fascia and the Carotid Sheath.

Tissue Spaces of The Neck.

Prevertebral space, Retropharyngeal Space, Parapharyngeal space (d)-Submandibular Space.

Triangles of The Neck (Boundaries, Muscles and Contents)

The Posterior Triangle of the Neck, The Occipital Triangle of the Neck ,The Subclavian Triangle of the Neck.

The Anterior Triangle of The Neck. (Boundaries, Muscles and Contents)

The Submental Triangle (The Digastric Triangle The Carotid Triangle, The muscular triangle 

The contents of the Posterior Triangle and The Sternocleidomastoid muscles, Lymphnodes of the Posterior Triangle, Accessory Nerve, The Cervical Plexus 

The inferior belly of the omohyoid,The transverse cervical vessels and the supraclavicular vessels, The third part of the subclavian artery, The external jugular vein 

Contents of The Posterior Triangle (Continued)

The external jugular vein 

The Levator Scapulae 

The transverse cervical artery 

The dorsal scapular nerve 

Scalenus posterior.

Scalenus medius 

Scalenus anterior .

The Cervical Plexus:

The cervical plexus is a content of the posterior triangle.

Dermatomes of the Neck.

The Anterior Triangle of The Neck

Suprahyoid Muscles such as:

Digastric Muscle, Stylohyoid, Mylohyoid and Geniohyoid.

THE INFRAHYOID MUSCLES:

Sternohyoid, Omohyoid, Thyrohyoid and Sternothyroid .

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of The Thyroid Gland. 

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of The ParaThyroid Gland.

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of The Trachea.

The Topographical, Functional Microscopic, developmental and Applied Anatomy of The Thyroid Gland.

The Topographical, Functional Microscopic, developmental and Applied Anatomy of The Pitutary Gland.

The (The Cervical) Oesophagus.

The Carotid Sheath.

The Ansa Cervicalis.

The Suprahyoid Region.

The Platysma.

The Anterior Jugular Veins.

The Submental and submandibular lymphnodes.

The submandibular Fossa.

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of The submandibular Gland.

The Great Vessels of The Neck.

The External Carotid Artery.

The superior Thyroid Artery.

The Lingual Artery.

The Facial Artery.

The submental Artery.

The Occipital Artery.

The Posterior Auricular Artery.

The Ascending Pharyngeal Artery.

The Internal Carotid Artery.

The Internal Jugular veins.

The Prevertebral Region.

The Prevertebral Muscles of The Neck

Rectus Capitis Anterior.

Rectus Capitis Lateralis.

Longus Capitis.

Longus Colli.

THE CERVICAL SYMPATHETIC TRUNK.

The Cervical Part of the sympathetic trunk.

The Superior Cervical Ganglion.

The Middle Cervical Ganglion.

(The Inferior Cervical Ganglion.

The Stellate Ganglion or The Cervico-Thoracic Ganglion.

The Somatic, Visceral and Vascular Branches of the Cervical Sympathetic Trunk.

THE ROOT OF THE NECK.

The Topographical, the anterior, medial, posterior and lateral relations and Applied Anatomy (subclavian vein catheterization) of The Scalenus Anterior Muscles.

The Scalenus Medius Muscles.

The Scalenus Posterior Muscles.

THE FACE.

The Skin of The Face.

The Muscles of the Face (mainly sphincteric muscles from the pannicullus carnosus without a deep fascia.)

The Muscles of the Eyelids.

The orbicularis oculi (palpebral part)

The orbicularis oculi (orbital part)

Levator palpebrae superioris.

The occipito-frontalis muscles.

Muscles of The Nostrils

The Sphincter Muscles of the nostril.
Compressor Naris

Dilator Naris.

Muscles of the Lips and Cheeks.

Orbicularis Oris.

The Buccinator.

The Dilator Muscles of the Lips

The Modiolus Muscle.

Elevator Muscle fibres of the Lips.

Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi.

Levator Labii superioris.

Levator anguli oris.

Zygomaticus Minor.

Risorius muscle.

Depressor labii inferioris.

Nerve supply of the face muscles.

(i)-The Posterior auricular branch of the Facial nerve (Supplies the occipital belly of occipito-frontalis)

(ii)-A muscular branch (supplies the posterior belly of digastric and stylohyoid muscle.

(iii)-The pes anserinus of the Facial nerve (A plexiform arrangement)

(iv)-The facial branches of the facial nerve.

Temporalis——————————–(The)

Zygomatic branches.——————(Zebras)

Buccal Branches————————(Brings)

Mandibular Branch (Marginal) ——–(More)

Cervical Branch—————————(Crossings)

The Sensory Nerve Supply of The Face.

The Trigeminal Nerve. (Ophthalmic, Maxillary and Mandibular Branches)

The Ophthalmic Nerve. (Has five cutaneous branches)

The Lacrimal nerve.

The supraorbital nerve.

The infratrochlear nerve.

The external nasal nerve.

The  Maxillary Nerve.(Has three cutaneous branches)

Infraorbital nerve.

Zygomaticofacial nerve.

Zygomaticotemporal nerve.

The Mandibular Nerve (Has three cutaneous branches)

The auriculotemporal nerve.

The buccal nerve.

The Mental Nerve.

BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE FACE:

Facial Artery.

Superior and Inferior Labial Artery.

Superficial Temporal Artery.

Transverse Facial Artery.

The supraorbital and supratrochlear branches of the ophthalmic artery.

The Venous Return From The face. (Usually entirely superficial)

The supra-orbital and supratrochlear veins

The angular veins and 

The facial vein on accompanying the facial artery.

(Formerly the part above the retromandibular union was called anterior facial vein and the part below it the common facial vein.)

Tributaries of the superficial temporal vein.

The maxillary veins

The pterygoid venous plexus

The retromandibular vein

Anterior and posteriorretromandibular veins.

The Anterior retromandibular vein

 The facial vein

The internal jugular vein.

The posterior retromandibular vein

 The posterior auricular vein

 The external jugular vein, 

The subclavian vein.

Deep Venous Anastomoses of The Face:

The Facial vein

The Cavernous Sinus.

The ophthalmic veins .

The Deep Facial Vein 

The angular veins

 The deep facial veins .

The Lymphatic Drainage of The Face.(Mainly through three superficial Groups of Lymphnodes)

The Submental Nodes.

The Submandibular Nodes.

The Preauricular Group of Nodes.

The Deep Cervical Group of Lymphnodes is where they eventually drain to.

The Scalp:

S—————————-Skin.

C—————————-Connective Tissue.

A—————————–Aponeurosis (Gela Aponeurotica)

L—————————–Loose connective Tissue.

P—————————–Periosteum.

The Forehead.

The Anatomy of The OccipitoFrontalis Muscle. 

The Arteries of The scalp.

The occipital artery, 

The posterior auricular artery, 

The superficial temporal artery.

The external carotid artery, 

The supraorbital and supratrochlear

The ophthalmic.

The Veins of The scalp.

The  diploic veins from frontal, parietaI and occipital bones.

The supraorbital vein and supratrochlear vein

 The angular veins

The facial vein.

The superficial temporal veins

The retromanduibular vein

And the Occipital veins

 The Venous plexus around the Semispinalis Capitis muscle 

The posterior auricular vein

The mastoid emissary vein from the sigmoid sinus.

The Lymphatics of The Scalp.

Nerve Supply of The Scalp.

The greateroccipital and third occipitalnerves (posterior rami of C2 and C3 respectively)

The lesser occipital nerve (anterior ramus of C2) 

The auriculotemporal nerve and The Zygomaticotemporal nerve

The supratrochlear nerve and supraorbital nerve innervates the forehead and front of the scalp respectively.

The Temporal Fossa and The Zygomatic Arch.

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of TheTemporal Fossa.

The Zygomatic Arch 

The Temporalis Fascia.

The Temporalis Muscle.

The parotid Region

The Masseter Muscle.

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of The  Parotid Gland.

The Infratemporal Region.

The topographical and Applied Anatomy of The Infratemporal Fossa.

The Boundaries of The Infratemporal Fossa.

The Contents of The Infratemporal Fossa.

The Medial Pterygoid Muscle.

The Lateral Pterygoid Muscle.

The insertion of the Temporalis Muscle into the Coronoid Process.

The Maxillary Artery and its Branches.

The Pterygoid Venous Plexus which drains into the Maxillary veins.

The Mandibular Nerve and its Branches.

The Otic ganglion.

Chorda Tympani.

Posterior Superior Alveolar Branches of the Maxillary Nerve.

The Sphenomandibular ligament.

The Mylohyoid nerve.

The Mylohyoid Artery.

The Mandibular Nerve(Branches):

The Meningeal Branch (or Nervus Spinosus).

The Nerve to The Medial Pterygoid Muscle.

The Mandibular Nerve (Branches from The Anterior Division):

The Deep Temporal Branches.

The Masseteric Nerve.

The Nerve to The Lateral Pterygoid Muscle.

The Buccal Nerve.

The Mandibular Nerve (Branches from The Posterior Division):

The Auriculotemporal Nerve.

The inferior alveolar nerve.

The Lingual Nerve.

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of the Chorda tympani.

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of the Otic Ganglion.

The Carotid Sheath and The Cranial Nerves:

The Glossopharyngeal Nerve(Branches).

The Inferior and Superior Ganglion of the Glossopharngeal Nerve.

The Glossopharyngeal Nerve (Its Six Branches).

The tympanic branch (Jacobson’s Nerve)

The motor branch of Stylopharyngeus Muscle.

Carotid Sinus Nerve.

Pharyngeal branches (one or more pharyngeal branches join the pharyngeal nervous plexus.

The Tonsillar Branch.

The Lingual Branch.

The Central Connexions of the Glossopharyngeal Nerves will be dwelt with latter.

The Topographical and Applied Anatomy of the Vagus Nerve.

The Superior and Inferior Ganglion of the Vagus Nerve.

The Vagus Nerve Branches in The Neck.

The Meningeal Branches.

The Auricular Branch.

The Carotid Body Branch.

The Pharyngeal Branch.

The Superior Laryngeal Branch.

The Cervical Cardiac Branches.

The Recurrent Laryngeal Branches.

The Accessory Nerve Branches in The Neck.

The Cranial and Spinal Accessory Nerve roots in The Neck.

The cranial root fibres join the Vagus nerve.

The remaining cervical fibres giving off a branch to the Steinocleidomastoid Muscle.

The Nerve to the Trapezius Muscle.

Efferent proprioceptive fibres from the muscle reach the spinal cord in the ordinary way through the C2 and C3 for the Steinocleidomastoid and through the C3 and C4 for the Trapezium.

The Hypoglossal Nerve.

Ramus from C1.

Non-lingual branches formed by hitch-hiking C1 fibres.

The Small meningeal branch.

The Branch to Ansa Cervicalis .

The Branches to Thyrohyoid and Geniohyoid.

The Hypoglossal Fibres to The Tongue.

The Styloid Apparatus

The Styloid Process.

The Stylohyoid Ligament.

The stylopharyngeus Muscle.

The Styloglossus Muscle.

The Stylomandibular Ligament.

The External Carotid Artery.

THE PTERYGOPALATINE FOSSA.

.Boundaries of The Pterygopalatine Fossa.

Contents The Pterygopalatine Fossa.

The Maxillary Nerves.

The Maxillary Arteries.

The Maxillary Veins.

The Pterygopalatine Ganglion.

Trace The course and Branches  of The maxillary Nerve in The Pterygopalatine Fossa.

The Pterygopalatine Ganglion.

The nerve of the pterygoid Canal (Vidian Nerve)

The Five Nerve branches of the Pterygopalatine ganglion 

The Nasopalatine nerve( formerly the long Sphenopalatine

The Lateral Posterior Superior Nasal Nerves (formerly the short Sphenopalatine)

The Greater Palatine Nerve 

The Lesser Palatine Nerves

The Pharyngeal Nerve 

One or two very fine orbital branches 

The five branches of the Maxillary 

Topographical, functional microscopic, developmental Anatomy of the sensory organs:

The Ears

The Eyes

The Tongue

The Nose.

The Paranasal Sinuses.

Topographical, functional microscopic, developmental Anatomy of the Central Nervous System (The Brain and The Spinal Cord)

Methods of Instruction:

Digital photographs,Microscopic and Micrographic Slides fLight Microscopy, Electron Transmission Microscopy, Scanning Electron Transmission Microscopy Immunoflouresence Microscopy, 

Phase Contrast Microscopy,Immunohistochemistry,molecular-pathology,mutation-analysis cytogenetics,toxicology,Imaging Techniques such as Digital Camera,X-rays,(Computer Tomographic Scans(CT Scans),Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans(MRIs),Nuclear-Medicine-Techniques,Spectroscopy,Spectrometry,Electrophoresis,Chromatography  etc.

Lectures

Tutorials

Discussion groups

Guest lectures

Projects (e.g. case studies, poster presentation, seminar presentation)

Reading of articles from relevant scientific journals and Text Books.

Methods of Course Assessment:

Evaluation will be carried out in accordance with the university policy. 

The lecturer will present a written course outline with specific evaluation criteria at the beginning of the semester.Evaluation will be based on the following:

Criteria Marks

Individual Works/Tasks 10

Class Tests 10

Class Assignments 10

Final Examination 70

TOTAL 100

Pre-requisite courses:

None

Co-requisite course(s):

None

Recommended Reference Materials:

Indexed Anatomy Textbooks,Journals,Web etc.

Please click on the course content tab to have access to all required materials for this course.

Legacy University COVID-19 Response

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