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Course Description

Credit Units: 2
Lecturers: Dr. Emmanuel Onyekwelu, Email Id: euonyekwelu@hotmail.com, College of Health Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences

Course description:
This course deals with basic thematic aspects of Human topographical and Applied Embryology and Histology  their employ in  the appreciation and evaluation of common  Pathological ,Paediatric,Medical,Surgical ,Gynaecological and obstetrics conditions in a unified and synoptic framework to direct apposite diagnostic, prophylactic  and therapeutic interventions.

Learning Outcomes/ Objectives

At the end of the course, the student will be able to;

Appreciate and explore the basic topographical developmental and functional microscopic anatomical concepts to localise the common symptomatologies of patients to expedite initial diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to facilitate prompt referral where appropriate.

Apply the knowledge of topographical developmental and functional microscopic Anatomy to facilitate the acquisition of skills  for basic clinical procedures in a routine, exigent, urgent and emergent clinical setting. 

Employ the knowledge of developmental anatomy or embryology to appreciate and comprehend the basic processes of human development from conception through the embryonic and fetal periods until birth, and in this way appreciate when and why things go wrong in the common congenital malformations.

Comprehend and extrapolate the knowledge of Histology or functional microscopic Anatomy to appreciate how nature very closely matches structure to function and how these consistencies could be modified or lost in some physiological or pathological conditions.

Course Content
Human Embryology (Essense)

The Bilaminar Germ Disc Layer. 

The Trilaminar Germ Disc Layer (Essence)

The Trilaminar Germ Disc Layer (Development)

The Embryonic Period (Derivatives of The Ectodermal Germ Layer).

The Embryonic Period (Derivatives of the Mesodermal Layer).

Derivatives of the Endodermal Germ Layer.

Derivatives of the Endodermal Germ Layer. (During further development the endodermal germ layer gives rise to the:

The Embryonic Period from The (Third to The Eight Week)

The Embryological Aspects of the Skeletal System.

The Embryological Aspects of the Skeletal System (The Skull)

The development of the diaphragm. The elements contributing to the diaphragm include:

The development of the diaphragm. 

The Embryology and The Histological Structure OF The Trachea.

The embryological development of the heart (Essense and Process)

The embryological development of the heart (Essense and Process)

The fetal circulation (Essense and Transition at Birth) 

The fetal circulation (Essense and Transition at Birth) and Applied Anatomy.

Development of the oesophagus.

The development of the gastro-intestinal system.

The gastrointestinal adnexae, liver, gall-bladder and its ducts, pancreas and spleen.

Development of The Pancreas

The embryology and congenital abnormalities of the kidney and ureter 

Embryology of the Fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina.

Characterize and describe the structural components of the 

The Bilaminar germ disc layer: 

The Trilaminar germ disc layer.

Categorize and describe the germ layer origin of all the cells, tissues, and organs systems of the body. And annotate on their basic structural and functional units.

The embryological basis for the formation of an anomalous congenital Sacrococcygeal Teratoma and other Teratomas.

With suitable examples characterize a Teratoma and what are the possible anatomical and histological structures that could be seen in a Teratoma during operative interventions.

 With the aid of a diagrammatical representation itemise and discuss the temporal sequence of the Functional microscopic, topographical developmental and applied developmental anatomical events that take place during the formation of the cardiac system.and their common developmental anatomical defects.

Itemise and characterize the components of Tetralogy of Fallot and their embryological basis.

Itemise and discuss the temporal sequence of events that take place during the formation of the ©-the arterial system (d) – the venous system (e) – the lymphatic system and their common developmental anatomical defects. (f)-Characterize and describe the embryonic haemoglobins.

 With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and developmental anatomy of the Phrenic and the defects associated with its development.

Define and Characterize the Foramen of Bochdalek defect and the Foramen of Morgagni defect.

Define and characterize the topographical anatomical and applied anatomical defects in the Sliding Hiatus hernia and the rolling or paraoesophageal hiatus hernias.

With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and developmental anatomy of the lungs.

Characterize and define the structural and the functional microscopic anatomical component and the role of pulmonary surfactant.

What are the structural, topographical and functional microscopic defects associated with anomalous development of the Lungs?

 With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and developmental anatomy of the trachea. 

Discuss the typology of the anomalous developmental defects of the trachea.

With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and developmental anatomy of the components of gastrointestinal system and adnexae (Pancrease, Liver, gallbladder and the spleen) and their possible associated congenital abnormalities.

Define and characterize the Meckels Diverticulum.

Describe the embryological basis for an Omphalocele, a Congenital Volvolus, Left sided ascending colon, ano-rectal anomalies, Hirschsprung’s disease (Aganglionic megacolon) etc.

 With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and developmental anatomy of the renal systems.

Itemise and annotate on the embryologic basis for congenital polycystic kidneys, Ectopia vesicae, ectopic and bifid ureters, pelvic kidney, horseshoe kidneys, Marion’s disease, Potters syndrome etc.

 With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the functional microscopic and developmental anatomy of the male genital systems and the defects associated with it.

Discuss the embryological basis for: cryptochordism and malpositioning of the male testes. Epispadias, Hypospadias etc.

With notable examples characterize the male gonadal aneuploidies.

With the aid of a diagrammatical representation discuss the Functional microscopic and topographical developmental and applied developmental anatomy of the female genital systems and their associated defects.

With notable examples characterize the female gonadal aneuploidies.

Comprehend the hormonal and genetic defects in the ambiguous genitalia of male and female infants.

The Topographical, Functional Microscopic, developmental and Applied Anatomy of The Thyroid Gland.

The Topographical, Functional Microscopic, developmental and Applied Anatomy of The Pitutary Gland

Topographical, functional microscopic, developmental Anatomy of the sensory organs:

The Ears

The Eyes

The Tongue

The Nose. The Paranasal Sinuses.

The Larynx

Typology ,examples and histological Features of Epithelia cells,Cartiage,muscles tissue,bones .blood vessels,nervous tissues,neuroglial,microglias  and an annotated diagrmmatical representation of the basic functional and structural units of all the tissues and organ sysytems of the body etc.,

Topographical, functional microscopic, developmental Anatomy of the Central Nervous System (The Brain and The Spinal Cord)

Methods of Instruction:

Digital Photographs, Light Microscopy, Electron Transmission Microscopy, Scanning Electron Transmission Microscopy Immunoflouresence Microscopy, 

Phase Contrast Microscopy,Immunohistochemistry,molecular-pathology,mutation-analysis cytogenetics,toxicology,Imaging Techniques such as Digital Camera,X-rays,(Computer Tomographic Scans(CT Scans),Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans(MRIs),Nuclear-Medicine-Techniques ,Spectroscopy,Spectrometry,Electrophoresis,Chromatography  etc.

Lectures

Tutorials

Discussion groups

Guest lectures

Projects (e.g. case studies, poster presentation, seminar presentation)

Reading of articles from relevant scientific journals

Methods of Course Assessment:

Evaluation will be carried out in accordance with the Legacy  university policy. The lecturer will present a written course outline with specific evaluation criteria at the beginning of the semester.Evaluation will be based on the following:

Criteria Marks

Individual Works/Tasks 10

Class Tests 10

Class Assignments 10

Final Examination 70

TOTAL 100

Pre-requisite courses:

None

Co-requisite course(s):

None

Recommended Reference Materials:

Indexed  Embryology and Histology Textbooks, Journals  and Web.

Please click on the course content tab to have access to all required materials for this course.

Legacy University COVID-19 Response

We wish you and your loved ones health and peace during these uncharted times. Our University remains open with the implementation of online classes for the 2020 academic year via our Legacy University Open eSchool (https://legacyuniversitygm.org/elearning)

For general question please email us at: info@legecyuniversitygm.org, call (+220) 507-3964 or visit the university website - https://legacyuniversitygm.org