Current Status
Not Enrolled
Price
Free
Get Started
Course
Materials

Course Description

Credit Units: 2
Lecturers: Dr. Emmanuel Onyekwelu, Email Id: euonyekwelu@hotmail.com, College of Health Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences

Course description:
This course deals with basic thematic aspects of General Pathology and their application in the evaluation and intervention of diseases of the Oral, maxillofacial, head and neck in addition to common general systemic diseases especially the ones that implicates these regions.

Learning Outcomes/ Objectives:
At the end of this course, the student will be able to;

[i]-Employ General Pathological Concepts in the evaluation and interventions of diseases of the Oral, maxillofacial, head and neck in addition to common general systemic diseases especially the ones that implicates these regions.

[ii]-Comprehend the various subspecialties of Pathology for appropriate utmost expert consultation.

[iii]-Appreciate the role of Pathology in Clinical Practice especially in Dental Therapy.

[iv]-Be acquainted of the basic routine armamentariums employed in Pathology such as but not confined to Light Microscopy, Electron Transmission Microscopy, Scanning Electron Transmission Microscopy Immunoflouresence Microscopy, Phase Contrast 

Microscopy,Immunohistochemistry,molecular-pathology,mutation-analysis cytogenetics,toxicology,Imaging Techniques such as Digital Camera,X-rays,(Computer Tomographic Scans(CT Scans),Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans (MRIs ), Nuclear Medicine Techniques ,Spectroscopy,Spectrometry,Electrophoresis,Chromatography  etc.

[v]-Comprehend the indications, and pros and cons of various sampling techniques such as Surgical Pathological Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy and Cytology, Excisional and Incisional biopsies, Trucut biopsies and Frozen Section techniques, blood and body fluid collection techniques etc.

Course Content:

The Scientific Discipline Of Pathology. (Essense)

Definition of Pathology and its allied subspecialties.

Pathology as the scientific study that guides the cure of diseases.  

Histopathology, Chemical Pathology and Microbiology/Parasitology are traditional branches of Pathology.

Histopathology includes diagnosis with tissues and autopsy (necropsy)

Chemical Pathology includes the diagnosis with the use of chemical composition of the body fluids.

Microbiology/Parasitology is the study of the implicated microbes (Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses and Parasites) in disease causation.

The Thematic Components     of General Pathology such as:

Inflammation, Necrosis, Calcification, Amyloidosis and Degeneration.

Wound and Fracture Healing, Typology of Ulcers, Fibrogenesis.

The Physiological aspects of cellular and tissue adaptations.

The Pathological aspects of cellular and tissue adaptations.

The generic aspects of Bening and Malignant Neoplasias.

The Thematic Components   of Systemic Pathology which includes:

Neuropathology, Oral Pathology, Paediatric Pathology, and Dermatopathology.

Cytopathology, Immunohistogenetics ,Immunocompatibillity& Transplantation Science.

Haematopathology, Oncological Pathology&Transfusion Science.

Paediatric Pathology, Maxillofacial/Oral Pathology, Molecular Pathology and Cytogenetics.

Head/Neck Pathology, Forensic Pathology, Immunohistochemistry&Toxicology.

The Other Components of The Systemic  Pathology which includes:

Nephropathology, Gastrointestinal Pathology and Hepatopathology.

Endocrine Pathology, Rheumatopathology&CardioPulmonary Pathology

Nephropathology deals with diseases of the Renal&Urological systems.

Rheumatopathology and its related Immunopathology.

Gastrointestinal Pathology and its related  Hepato-Pathology  through their origin.

Examples and Nomenclature of Experts in Pathology.

Inflammation.(Definitions and Cardinal signs)

Inflammation (Symptomatologies and Signs)

Inflammation (Inciting agents)

Inflammation (Essense)

The acute exudative inflammatory reaction and its formal pathogenic elements:

Inflammatory Mediators.

Pathogenesis of the exudation phase of inflammation.

Inflammatory phases outcome 

Examples of micro-organisms that could incite chronic and/or granulomatous  inflammation 

Acute inflammation (Essense)

Subacute inflammation (Essense)

Chronic inflammation (Essense)

The Consequence of the proliferative phase of inflammation:

Exudative inflammations 

Serous Inflammation (Essense)

Differential characteristic of a Transudate :

Serous  Exudate:

Catarrhal Inflammation 

Fibrinous Inflammation (Essense)

Fibrinous Inflammation (Croupous Type).

Fibrinous Inflammation (Diphtheria Type)

Empyema (Essense).

Phlegmon (Essense)

An abscess (Essense)

Haemorrhagic Inflammation (Essense)

Putrefactive Inflammation

Courses of Acute Inflammation 

Wound Healing 

First Intention (Primary) Intention Healing (Essense)

The Early lag phase of wound healing.

The proliferative phase of wound healing (Features).

The Remodelling phase of wound healing (Features).

(Second) Secondary Intention healing(Essense).

Examples of Local and regional  factors undermining and discouraging wound healing includes:

Examples of General and systemic Factors delaying wound healing .

Soft Tissue Inflammations(Typology and Features).

Cysts (Essense)

Congenital Cysts (Typology and Essense)

Ulcers (Essense and Classification Schemes)

Ulcers (Essense and Features)

Ulcers (Essense and Features)

Ulcers (Natural History and Interventions)

Sinuses and Fistulas (Essense)

(Factors leading to delayed healing or non-closure) Sinuses and Fistulas includes.

Gangrene (Essense)

Gangrene (Aetiology and Typology)

Gangrene (Natural history and Essense)

Gangrene (Natural history and Interventions)

Tumours (Neoplasms or New Growths) Essense and Classification Schemes.

Tumours (Histology and Biological Behaviour)

Tumours (Structural Classification)

Tumours (Examples  and Structural Classifications)

Cellular changes (Hyperplasia)

Cellular changes (Aplasia and hypoplasia)

Cellular changes (Atrophy)

Cellular changes (Hypertrophy)

Cellular changes (Dysplasia)

Cellular Changes Metaplasia.

Necrosis (Typologies )

Hypersensitivity responses (Typology and Essense)

Calcifications(Typology and Essense).

Amyloidosis(Typology and Essense).

Inherited immunodeficiency states(Typology and Essense) .

The features of T-cell deficiencies .

The features of B-cell deficiencies include.

IgA deficiency states (Pathological Essense)

Quantitation of B and T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood film for the diagnosis of immunodeficiency states.

Useful Screening Test for the evaluation of a T-cell immunity.

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency (Essense and Interventions)

DiGeorges syndrome (Essense)

Jobs Syndrome (Essense)

Ataxia-telangiectasia (Essence)

Complement deficiencies (Pattern and Essense)

C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency (Essense and Interventions)

Discuss the pathology, complications and targets for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for

Congestive Cardiac Failure in childhood,

Nephrotic syndrome in childhood.

Protein-energy malnutrition (Kwashiorkor, Marasmus and Marasmic kwashiorkor)

Nephritic Syndrome.

Nephritic-Nephrotic syndrome.

protein loosing enteropathies and malabsorption syndrome.

Allergic and idiopathic oedema.

Congenital Nephrotic syndromes, congenital hepatic and biliary cirrhosis.

Renal, Jeujunal, deudonal and hepatic Biopsies Renal Dialysis, Hepatic, Renal and Cardiac Transplantations. 

The various Modalities of Renal Replacement Therapy. 

The Nephropathy of Systemic Diseases (Diabetes Mellitus, Malignancies, and Systemic Lupus Erythomatosus etc.

Hypercoagulability in Nephrotic syndrome.

Nephrotic syndrome and susceptibility to infective episodes.

The Famillial Genetic Congenital Nephrotic Syndromes.

The Dannys Drash Syndrome. 

The divergence in the therapeutic interventions between the Acute Nephritic syndrome and the Nephrotic syndrome. 

The iatrogenic complications in acute nephritic syndrome and acute nephrotic syndrome.

Applying your knowledge of the gastrointestinal tract and its adnexeal(Liver,Spleen,Pnacrease and the gall bladder)  pathologies itemise and discuss the aetiology, pathology, complications and targets for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.of the probable causes of  gastrointestinal bleeding.

For each organ of the GIT and adnexa (liver, gall bladder ,spleen and the pancreas discuss the pathology and diagnosis of the most common lesions that could cause steatorrhoea, malabsorption and intestinal failure and identify possible targets for rational diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

Characterize the shock syndrome and with notable examples discuss the typology, pathogenesis, complications and targets for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for shock syndromes.

State, examine and discuss the Starlings Law of Fluid dynamics.

Discuss the aetiology, typology, complications, and targets for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for:

Biventricular congestive cardiac failure. 

Cor pulmonale.

Pulmonary Oedema.

vascular aneurysms and varicosities.

Pericarditis.

Arrythmias. 

Infective Endocarditis

Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Valvular Disease.

Discuss the pathology, complications and targets for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for:

Idiopathic Fibrosing Alveolitis. 

Bronchial Asthma. 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD). 

Pneumonconiosis.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

Sarcoidosis.

Bronchogenic Carcinoma.

Mesotheliomas.

Discuss the pathology and targets for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, complications for:

Cranial and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

Diabetes Mellitus.

Diabetic Pre-Coma and Coma states.

The Infantile, Childhood and juvenile onset Diabetes Mellitus and Adult onset Diabetes Mellitus.

Discuss the pathological causes of progressive head, neck and oral cavity lesions especially those with the three Ds (dysphagia, dyspnoea and dysphonia.) and bleeding diathesis.

Discuss the typology, pathology, mechanisms of metastatic disseminations, complications and targets for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for the thyroid carcinomas.

Discuss the typology, pathology, complications and targets for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for: 

The inflammatory, idiopathic, cryptogenic, autoimmune and, nutritional thyroid disorders.

The Waterhouse Freidreichsens syndrome. 

The Stein-Leventhal syndrome.

The Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndromes (MENS)

Application of General PATHOLOGY In Systemic Pathology  of Reevance To Students of Dental Therapy.

History Taking of Relevance To Renal Pathology.

Unusual macroscopic appearances of urine and the possible aetiological factor 

Basic general physical examination to guide pathological laboratory investigations:

Classification  of the Symptomatologies and Signs of Chronic Renal Failure (CRF):

The Symptomatologies and Signs of Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) could be systemically classified as Follows:

Ureamic Osteopathology:

Reproductive Difficulties and Pathology in Chronic Renal Failure:

CardioPathology OF Chronic Renal Failure:

The Symptomatologies and Signs of Chronic Renal Failure(CRF) could be Systemically classified as Follows:

Haemato-pathology of chronic renal failure:

The Immunopathology of chronic renal failure:

Central nervous system (CNS) features of chronic renal failure and ureamic neuropathology .

Respiratory/Pulmonary System (CNS) Features of chronic renal failure and ureamic pulmonary pathology includes:

Gastrointestinal System Pathological (GITSystem) Features of Chronic Renal Failure:

Gastrointestinal System Pathological (GITSystem) Features of Chronic Renal Failure:

Ureamic Gastroenteropathology:

The Dermathopathology and Allied Integumentary System Pathology of Chronic Renal Failure:

The Musculo-Skeletal System Pathology of Chronic Renal Failure:

Ureamic Myopathology:

Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances in Chronic Renal Failure:

Reproductive Difficulties and Pathology in Chronic Renal Failure:

Haemato-Pathology of Chronic Renal Failure:

The Immunopathology of Chronic Renal Failure:

Endocrinopathies and metabolic disturbances of chronic renal failures:

Renal Osteodystrophy,Secondary Hyperparathyroidism,Carbohydrate Intolerance  Hyperuricaemia,Hypothermia ,Hypertriglyceridemia , Protein-Calorie malnutrition  Impaired growth and development ,Infertility and Sexual dysfunction ,Amenorrhea.

[D]-Dialysis and Transplantation related complications.

Investigations for Renal Pathologies which have three main purposes:

First, to establish a diagnosis.

Secondly to assess the complications of impaired renal function.

Thirdly to prepare the patient for probable surgery and to monitor the progress of the pathology and its response to therapy, or both 

The ideal sequence of investigations in renal pathology which depends upon the clinical picture. 

The widely applicable of approach of investigations in renal pathology which is equally variable.

Other investigations of relevance for the Renal system :

Investigations used selectively for the renal system :

Specialized Investigations for the Renal System includes:

Renal arteriography 

Specialized Investigations of the renal system (essence) and gradings

The Pivotal Role of Radionuclide Scans in Renal Pathology:

Further indications For a Radionuclide scanning include:

The Role of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Interventional Radiological Techniques  in several aspects of Renal Pathology.

Renal biopsy (Essense and Indications)

Renal Biopsy (Absolute and Relative Indications)

In the evaluation of Renal Disease Tests For Other Systemic Disease May be needed and Included:

Acute Kidney Injury (Targeted Therapeutic Interventions) include.

Renal Replacement Therapy (Essence) 

Acute nephritic syndrome (Essense).

Nephrotic Syndrome (Essense and Causes)

Renal vasculitis and Wegener’s Granulomatosis.

Tubulo-interstitial Diseases (Essense and Definitions)

Renal Tubular Disorders-RTD (Essense and Typology)

Hypertension and the Kidney (Renal Hypertension)

Hypertension and The Kidney (Hypertensive Nephropathy)

Familial Renal Diseases (Essense and Typology)

Renal Parenchymal Infectious Diseases Spectrum.

Chronic Pyelonephritis. (Essense and Typology)

Obstructive Uropathy (Essense and Interventions)

Renal calculi (Essense and Interventions)

Renal calculi, renal calcification and nephrocalcinosis (Essense and Interventions)

History Taking and Examination of relevance to the Gastrointestinal Hepatology Systems Pathology.

Causes of Gastrointestinal Bleeding include:

Further Physical and Systemic Examination Findings in Hepatobiliary, Pancreatic and Gastrointestinal Systems Pathology:

Investigations of Relevance To The Gastrointestinal System and Hepatology system Pathology.

The Contributions of Nuclear Medicine Techniques To The Evaluation of Hepatobiliary, Pancreatic and Gastrointestinal Pathology.

The Contributions of Histopathological Techniques To The Evaluation of Hepatobiliary, Pancreatic and Gastrointestinal Pathology.

Historical Notes of Relevance To The Cardiovascular System Pathology.

Biventricular Congestive Cardiac Failure.

Biventricular Congestive Cardiac Failure (Essense and Features)

Biventricular Congestive Cardiac Failure (Essense and Features) &Medications 

Heart Failure (Classification Schemes)

Biventricular Congestive Cardiac Failure (Essense and Typology)

Ultrasonography of The Heart.

Imaging in Biventricular Congestive Cardiac Failure.

Angiography In Heart Failure

Algorithms for The Diagnosis of Congestive Cardiac Failure.

Staging of Biventricular Congestive Cardiac Failure

The evaluation of Heart Failure:

The Prevention of Congestive Cardiac Failure:

Congestive Cardiac Failure (Essense and Interventions)

Surgical therapies For Heart Failure.

Palliative care: 

Prognosis: 

Heart Failure (Essense, Interventions and Prognosis)

Research Directions for Congestive Cardiac Failure.

Paradoxical Embolism. (Venous to arterial) Essense.

Cardiac biomarkers .

Complications of Myocardial infarction 

Cardiomyopathies could be classified using different criteria•

Rheumatic Heart Fever (RHF)-Essense and Pathology.

Modified Duckett Jones (Major Criteria):

Modified Duckett Jones for The diagnosis of Rheumatic Fever (Minor criteria) 

Aetiological Factors For Pericarditis include

Pericarditis (Typology and Complications)

Pathophysiology of Aneurysms:

Aneurysms (Essense, Typology and Interventions)

Lymphoedema (Essense and Typology) 

Arrythmias (Essense, Typology and Interventions)

Heart blocks.(Definitions and Essense)

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)

Varicose Veins Complications 

Pathophysiology of asthma

Adult respiratory distress Syndrome(ARDS):

Common Causes of ARDS include but not confined to :

Common Endocrinopathies .

Methods of Instruction:

Light Microscopy, Electron Transmission Microscopy, Scanning Electron Transmission Microscopy Immunoflouresence Microscopy, Phase Contrast 

Microscopy,Immunohistochemistry,molecular-pathology,mutation-analysis cytogenetics,toxicology Digital Camera,X-rays,(Computer Tomographic Scans(CT Scans),Magnetic-Resonance-Imaging-Scans(MRIs ),Nuclear Medicine Techniques, Spectroscopy,Spectrometry,Electrophoresis,Chromatography-etc.Microscopic and Micrographic  Slides. 

Lectures

Tutorials

Discussion groups

Guest lectures

Projects (e.g. case studies, poster presentation, seminar presentation)

Reading of articles from relevant scientific journals and Text Books.

.

Methods of Course Assessment:

Evaluation will be carried out in accordance with the university policy. The lecturer will present a written course outline with specific evaluation criteria at the beginning of the semester.Evaluation will be based on the following:

Criteria Marks

Individual Works/Tasks 10

Class Tests 10

Class Assignments 10

Final Examination 70

TOTAL 100

Pre-requisite courses:

None

Co-requisite course(s):

None

Recommended Reference Materials:

Indexed Pathology Textbooks, Journals and Web

Please click on the course content tab to have access to all required materials for this course.

Legacy University COVID-19 Response

We wish you and your loved ones health and peace during these uncharted times. Our University remains open with the implementation of online classes for the 2020 academic year via our Legacy University Open eSchool (https://legacyuniversitygm.org/elearning)

For general question please email us at: info@legecyuniversitygm.org, call (+220) 507-3964 or visit the university website - https://legacyuniversitygm.org