Credit Units: 2
Lecturer: Dr. IKWUKA A.O. (MD, Sp. Cert., PhD Medicine) Email Id: email@example.com, College of Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences.
This course is designed to enable the student to acquire knowledge and apply the principles of
pharmacology in drug administration and its nursing implications. The course will also equip
the student with knowledge of patient safety issues through pharmacovigilance, diagnosis and
reporting adverse events. Students shall also engage in the discussion of current primary
research literature in the field of pharmacology, therapeutics and pharmacovigilance.
This course includes the following lecture themes:
1. Sources of drugs: plant, animal, synthetic, bacteria and fungi; General principles of
pharmacology: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics
The drugs listed below will be discussed under the following headings:
2. Mechanism of action
3. Pharmacological effects
5. Side effects
7. Drug interactions
9. Routes of administration
2. Analgesics – Opiates: morphine, pethidine; Salicylates: aspirin; Non-steroidal anti-
inflammatory agents: Aspirin, ibuprofen and diclofenac; Miscellaneous: paracetamol.
3. Hypnotics and sedatives: diazepam, barbiturates.
4. Drugs acting on the respiratory system – Bronchodilators: salbutamol, aminophylline,
Analeptics/respiratory stimulants: nikethamide; Expectorant/mucolytics: benylin;
Cough suppressants: codeine linctus.
5. Drugs used in infections: Antibacterial drugs – Penicillins: benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin,
cloxacillin; Tetracyclines; Aminoglycosides: streptomycin, gentamycin, neomycin,
kanamycin; Macrolides: erythromycin; Cephalosporins: cefotaxime, cefuroxime,
cephalexen; Sulphonamides: sulphadimidine, cotrimoxazole; Chloramphenicol;
Antituberculous drugs: rifampicin, isoniazid; Antileprotic drugs: dapsone, clofazimine;
Antiprotozoal drugs: metronidazole; Antimalarials: halofantrine hydrochloride,
fansidar, artesunate, amodiaquine; Amoebicides: metronidazole; Antifungal drugs:
nystatin, miconazole, griseofulvin, clotrimazole.
6. Antiretrovirals (ARVs) in use (country-specific): 1st line and 2nd line drugs,
Antiretrovirals used in Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT);
Antihelminthics: mebendazole, albendazole. Steroids: dexamethasone, hydrocortisone.
7. Cytotoxic drugs – Alkylating agents: busulphan; Antimetabolites: fluorouracil,
methotrexate, cytosine; Alkaloids: vincristine; Antibiotics: doxorubicin (Adriamycin).
8. Drugs acting on the digestive system – Antacids: aluminium hydroxide, magnesium
trisilicate; Antispasmodics or Spasmolytics: hyoscine butylbromide; Histamine (H2) –
receptor blockers: cimetidine, ranitidine; Proton pump inhibitor: omeprazole;
Cytoprotectives: misoprostol; Laxatives: bisacodyl, magnesium sulphate, liquid paraffin;
Antiemetics: promethazine hydrochloride, metoclopramide, hyoscine, avomine.
9. Key terms in Pharmacovigilance (pharmacovigilance, vaccine vigilance and patient
safety); Concept of pharmacovigilance; Importance of pharmacovigilance; Spontaneous
reporting and other methods of safety monitoring of medicines in ensuring patient safety;
The pharmacovigilance system (country-specific).
Methods of Instruction:
Projects (e.g. case studies, poster presentation, seminar presentation)
Reading of articles from relevant scientific journals
Methods of Course Assessment:
Evaluation will be carried out in accordance with the university policy. The lecturer will present
a written course outline with specific evaluation criteria at the beginning of the semester.
Evaluation will be based on the following:
Individual Works/Tasks 10
Class Tests 10
Class Assignments 10
Final Examination 70
Medical Genetics, Human Physiology, Biochemistry, Microbiology
Recommended Reference Materials:
1. Karen Whalen, et al (2019) Lippincott® Illustrated Reviews Pharmacology, 7th edition
2. Katzung Bertram G. (2018) Lange® Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 14th edition
3. Hilal-Dandan Randa, Brunton Laurence L. (2013) Goodman & Gilman’s Manual of
Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2nd edition
4. Chekman Ivan, et al (2006) Pharmacology, 1st edition
5. Stefanov O., Kucher V. (2004) Pharmacology with General Prescription, 1st edition
1. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics
2. Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
3. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal
Please click on the course content tab to have access to all required materials for this course.