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Course Description

Credit Units: 2 (PYS 021)/3 (HMC 014)
Lecturers: Mr. Ubak, N. G.  (BSc, Biochemistry; M.Sc. Pharmacognosy), Email: nsegulbert@yahoo.co.uk, College of Health Sciences, Dept of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Course description:

This is an introductory course of general human physiology. The course concentrates on physiological systems and unified concepts that contribute to a basic understanding of the structure of the human body. This course is to ensure that students acquire requisite knowledge of physiology as a basis for understanding how physiological processes are altered by disease states or affected by drugs.

Learning outcomes: 

At the end of the module, students should be able to: 

  • describe the morphology of the major structures in the human body. 
  • demonstrate an understanding of the relationships, interactions, and functions of major structures in the human body. 
  • identify common malfunctions associated with major structures and systems in the human body. 
  • demonstrate skills in the areas of observation and measurement of physiological processes; the assessment and integration of physiological information; 
  • explain the integrated functioning of physiological systems; the pathophysiological changes arising from defects in normal physiological functions; the potential sites of action and mechanisms by which therapeutic agents can affect normal and abnormal physiological function. 

Course content: 

  1. Introduction to the Human Body: an overview of anatomy and physiology; levels of structural organization; maintaining life; homeostasis; the language of anatomy; clinical applications. 
  2. Cellular Level of Organization: overview of the cellular basis of life; the plasma membrane: structure; the plasma membrane- functions; the cytoplasm; the nucleus; other organelles cell growth and reproduction; extracellular materials; clinical applications. 
  3. Tissue Level of Organization: epithelial tissue; connective tissue; covering and lining membranes; nervous tissue; muscle tissue; tissue repair; clinical applications. 
  4. The Integumentary System: the skin; appendages of the skin; functions of the integumentary system; homeostatic imbalances of skin; clinical applications. 
  5. Bones and Skeletal Tissue: skeletal cartilage; classification of bones; functions of bones; bone structure; bone development; bone homeostasis- remodeling and repair; homeostatic imbalances of bone; clinical applications. 
  6. Skeletal System: the axial skeleton (Skull, vertebral column, the bony thorax); the appendicular skeleton (pectoral (shoulder) girdle, upper limb, pelvic (hip) girdle, the lower limb); clinical applications. 

Muscles and Muscle Tissue: overview of muscle tissues; skeletal muscle; smooth muscle; clinical applications. 

  1. The Muscular System: interactions of skeletal muscles in the body; naming skeletal muscles; muscle mechanics- importance of fascicle arrangement and leverage; major skeletal muscles of the body. 
  2. Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: organization of the nervous system; histology of nervous tissue; neurophysiology; basic concepts of neural integration; clinical applications. 
  3. The Central Nervous System: the brain; higher mental functions; protection of the brain; the spinal cord; diagnostic procedures for assessing CNS dysfunction. 
  4. The Peripheral Nervous System: sensory receptors and sensation (overview: from sensation to perception); transmission lines: nerves and their structure and repair (nerves and associated ganglia, cranial nerves, spinal nerves); motor endings and motor activity (peripheral motor endings, overview of motor integration: from intention to effect); reflex activity (the reflex arc, spinal reflexes; clinical applications) 
  5. The Autonomic Nervous System: introduction; ANS anatomy; ANS physiology; homeostatic imbalances of the ANS; clinical applications. 
  6. The Special Senses: the chemical senses (taste and smell); the eye and vision; the ear: hearing and balance; developmental aspects of the special senses. 
  7. The Endocrine System: the endocrine system- an overview; hormones; major endocrine organs; other hormone-producing structures; clinical applications. 

Methods of Instruction:

  • Lectures
  • Tutorials
  • Discussion groups
  • Reading of articles from relevant scientific journals

Methods of Course Assessment:

. Evaluation will be based on the following criteria:

Criteria Marks

Class attendance 10

Tests 10

Assignments 10

Semester’s Examination 70

TOTAL 100

Pre-requisite courses:

None

Reading list: 

  1. TORTORA, G.J. AND DERRICKSON, B.H. (2014). Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Edn. New York: Wiley, ISBN: 9781118345009 
  1. MARIEB, E. N. AND HOEHN, K. (2016). Human Anatomy & Physiology, 10th Edn. Boston: Pearson, ISBN: 9780321927040 
  1. HALL, J. E. (2016). Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 13th Edn. Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier Science, ISBN: 9781455770052 
  1. MOORE, K. L., DALLEY, A. F. AND AGUR, A.M.R. (2014). Clinically Oriented Anatomy. 7th Edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN: 9781451119459

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Legacy University COVID-19 Response

We wish you and your loved ones health and peace during these uncharted times. Our University remains open with the implementation of online classes for the 2020 academic year via our Legacy University Open eSchool (https://legacyuniversitygm.org/elearning)

For general question please email us at: info@legecyuniversitygm.org, call (+220) 507-3964 or visit the university website - https://legacyuniversitygm.org