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Course Description

Credit Units: 3
Lecturers: Mr. Ubak, N. G.  (BSc, Biochemistry; M.Sc. Pharmacognosy), Email:, College of Health Sciences, Dept of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Course description:
This course is a continuation of Human Physiology I.  The course is designed to help students gain understanding about the physiological processes involved in the normal functioning of the musculoskeletal system, endocrine system, urinary system, nervous system, reproductive system and special senses. The biophsiochemical properties of the systems will be studied by the students.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the module, students should be able to: 

  • describe the musculoskeletal system of man, chemistry of skeletal muscle and energy  source
  • explain the hormonal system and its various functions; effects of these hormones in different health situations.
  • identify normal and abnormal health conditions associated with major organs and systems in the human body. 
  • demonstrate skills in the areas of observation and measurement of physiological processes; the assessment and integration of physiological information; 
  • explain the integrated functioning of physiological systems; the pathophysiological changes arising from defects in normal physiological functions; the potential sites of action and mechanisms by which therapeutic agents can affect normal and abnormal physiological function. 

Course content: 

  1. Musculoskeletal System – Physiology of muscle contraction; Physiology of smooth muscles; Chemistry of skeletal muscles including energy source. 
  2. 2. Endocrine System – Hypothalamus; Pituitary glands and hormones; Thyroid glands and hormones; Adrenal gland and hormones; Pancreas and hormones; Gonads and hormones. 
  3. Urinary system – Fluid and electrolyte balance; Kidney; Nephrons and functions; formation of urine. 
  4. Nervous system – autonomic nerves and functions; Motor and sensory nerves. Special senses – Physiology of sight; Physiology of hearing; taste and smell; Tactile sensation. 
  5. Reproductive system – functions of the male and female reproductive  systems. Some clinical problems associated with the systems.

Methods of Instruction:

  • Lectures
  • Tutorials
  • Discussion groups
  • Reading of articles from relevant scientific journals

Methods of Course Assessment:

. Evaluation will be based on the following criteria:

Criteria Marks

Class attendance 10

Tests 10

Assignments 10

Semester’s Examination 70


Pre-requisite course:

PYS 211

Reading list: 

  1. TORTORA, G.J. AND DERRICKSON, B.H. (2014). Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Edn. New York: Wiley, ISBN: 9781118345009 
  1. MARIEB, E. N. AND HOEHN, K. (2016). Human Anatomy & Physiology, 10th Edn. Boston: Pearson, ISBN: 9780321927040 
  1. HALL, J. E. (2016). Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 13th Edn. Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier Science, ISBN: 9781455770052 

4.  MOORE, K. L., DALLEY, A. F. AND AGUR, A.M.R. (2014). Clinically Oriented Anatomy. 7th Edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN: 9781451119459

Please click on the course content tab to have access to all required materials for this course.

Legacy University COVID-19 Response

We wish you and your loved ones health and peace during these uncharted times. Our University remains open with the implementation of online classes for the 2020 academic year via our Legacy University Open eSchool (

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