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Course Description

Credit Units: 2
Lecturer: Mr. Ajayi Tobi, Email Id: petertee24@yahoo.com, College of Health Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences

Course Description:

This course will help to provide the undergraduate nursing students opportunities to examine and apply theories/concepts and models that are needed to equip them to lead and manage people and processes effectively.

Learning Objectives and Outcomes:

 To upgrade nurses knowledge on principles and concepts in nursing management and leadership and to enable them use the knowledge gained to improve their management skills at  higher levels for better health outcome for individuals, families and communities. Students would be taught :

  • Staff management, supervision and coaching
  • Differences between management, process and theories
  • Levels of management
  • Management skills and managers roles
  • Signs of successful and bad manager
  • Leadership
  • Budgeting, scheduling and recruitment
  • Treatment and discharge planning
  • Organization

COURSE CONTENT  

This course shall be examined as follows

MANAGEMENT THEORIES: looking at various theories such as Frederick Taylors theory on scientific  management, which is task performance that would yield maximum work output for minimum energy expenditure by the worker (1856-1915). Henri Fayol “There should be a division of work and task specialization so that different workers carry out different job responsibilities,” Mary Fallett, Elton Mayo, and Kurt Levin’s  theory on changing and refreezing.

MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS: planning, organizing, staffing, leading and directing, controlling, decision making, nursing standards and organizational policy and procedure.

COMMUNICATION: The process, what influences communication, methods of verbal communication, process of Non-verbal communication, congruency of messages, therapeutic communication, Nurse/Client communication, factors affecting Nurse/client communications, electronic communication, communicating with yourself.

SYSTEM APPROACH: The characteristics, significance of system theories to the Nurse manager, system analysis and the techniques, introduction of new system in Nursing and how to design it.

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: Causes of Organizational conflict (Intra and inter) types of conflict resolution, importance of conflict management.

TIME, RECORDS AND STOCKS MANAGEMENT: definition of terms, building blocks, major time bandits,  how best to manage time as Nurses with case scenarios, managing stock materials and improvising in a reasonable way.

COURSE MATERIAL

The first consideration when it comes to  nursing management  is what it entails. Managerial nurses must not only be able to play a leading role in making vital decisions in patient care, but are also expected to carry out defined duties to support the wider nursing team. 

Management can be defined as the effective and efficient attainment of organizational goals through management functions or the process of getting work done through others. Nursing management is, then, the process of working through nursing staff members to provide care, cure, and comfort to patients ( Gillies et al 1989).

Process is defined as; 

  • connected series of actions, changes, which may be involuntary or unconscious; 
  • or series of operations deliberately undertaken to produce a result or results.

Theory is defined as;

  • Explanation of general principle of an art or science

     Managements responsibility is to coordinate resources in an effective and efficient manner to accomplish the organizational goals. Effectiveness is the degree to which the organization achieves a stated objective. Efficiency is based on the amount of resources used to produce an output of a product or service.

 MANAGEMENT SKILLS

  • Management skills can be categorized as conceptual, human and technical. All managers need each skill, but the amount differs at each level in the organizational hierarchy.
  • A. conceptual skill is the manager’s thinking and planning ability. This skill is especially important for top managers.
  • B. Human skills is the manager’s ability to work with and through other people. This is the ability to motivate, facilitate, coordinate, lead, communicate, and resolve conflicts. Manager at all level need human skill.
  • C. Technical skills is the understanding of the methods, techniques, diagnoses and equipment in the work to be done.

That said, Leadership on the other hand is the management of people;  

  • The role played in leadership deals with intuition, judgment and contextual thinking to solve organizational problems (Peters and Waterman 1982, Simon 1987, Agor, 1986  and Rowan, 1986);
  • Leadership is based on a power differential between parties and it is needed to align employees in support of organizational goals (Dee and Gillies, 1989);
  • Leadership activities include directing or pointing out the way, supervising or overseeing action, and coordinating or synthesizing efforts of different individuals.

 Let’s look at some little differences between a leader and a manager.

 Leaders and Managers are different from each other in the following ways:

Leader Manager

  • Administers Innovates
  • Maintains status quo Develops
  • Relies on systems to function Relies on people to function
  • Counts on control Counts on trust

Does things right Does the right thing

Furthermore, No one can be a successful leader or manager without having good communication skills, which involves using the appropriate ton of voice at the right time, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, body position, physical appearances, touch, postures and gait. A good nurse manager must also be an active listener and a good observer, which are very essential in obtaining both subjective and objective data. Although, a nurse manager might be a good communicator, there could be some communication barriers between  nurses and their clients which may include, Stereotyping, Judgmental response, Hearing and speech ability, Level of consciousness, Language proficiency, Social factors, Stage of illness, Religion, Family situation, Visual ability, Stage of illness.

Since nursing management involves getting work done through others, no work can be properly done without being time conscious, which means time management is very important. Nurses are renowned for being incredibly talented when it comes to time management and dealing with pressure. 

A good nurse manager/leader must also be a good stock manager, making sure supplies for the ward are available all through the shift or a given period of time. Improvising when the need arises but not in all cases, for example, it will be very dangerous to improvise materials such as Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in the hospital amid the COVID-19 crisis, improvising in such a situation could silently ruin a whole community.

Finally, it may be concluded that, Nursing leadership is very important in the nursing profession as it helps in the development of skills for the nurses.it can also help to reduce confusions and increase autonomy of the clinical nurses making them more motivated, productive and hence increasing the level of delivery of quality health care. Different leadership theories are applicable in the health care sector and especially in the nursing profession. The applicability of each theory depends on situations, desired outcomes and the values of the leaders and the staff nurses. The nurse managers should, then, understand that the leadership style adopted in any clinical setting will have significant effect on the satisfaction of the nursing staff and this will have an ultimate effect on the satisfaction of patients

Methods of Course Assessment: 

Evaluation will be carried out in accordance with the university policy. The lecturer will present a written course outline with specific evaluation criteria at the beginning of the semester. 

Evaluation will be based on the following: 

 

 

Criteria  Marks 
Individual Works/Tasks    10 
Class Tests    10 
Class Assignments  10 
Final Examination  70 
TOTAL  100 

 

Recommended Reference Materials: 

Textbooks 

  1. Nursing Leadership and Management by Patricia Kelly
  2. Effective leadership and Management in Nursing by Eleanor Sullivan J.
  3. Hilal-Dandan Randa, Brunton Laurence L. (2013) Goodman & Gilmans Manual of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2nd edition 
  4. Clinical Leadership in Nursing and Health Care

Web 

  1. www.ncbi.org
  2. www.medscape.com 
  3. www.nursingworld.org.

Please click on the course content tab to have access to all required materials for this course.

Legacy University COVID-19 Response

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